email: tfl3543@blackfoot.net

BEAR RIVER ZEOLITE CO., INC.
4005 East Glendale Road
Preston, ID 83263

tel: 406-827-3523
fax: 406-827-3543

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BRZ FOR POULTRY

PRODUCT DESCRIPTION

Size:               14 x 40, 30 x 60, -40 mesh, 60 cycle

APPLICATION

  • FEED
    This is the most effective point of addition. Many farms have eliminated most of their odor by feeding between ˝ to 2% of the total ration on a weight basis of BRZ™.   A 14 x 40 or a -40 mesh product should be fed in mash or a -40 mesh should be used to pelletize supplements.

  • BEDDING AREA
    A thin layer should be applied to the bedding area or to the area that receives the manure each time it is cleaned out.

  • COMPOST OR DRY STACKED MANURE
    The compost or dry stacked manure should be “top dressed” with a thin layer of BRZ™ after it is turned or after the addition of a new layer of manure. Alternatively, a layer of BRZ should be placed in the area of the barn receiving the fresh manure. Composting is an important process that (1) converts organically bound nitrogen that is not plant accessible to ammonium hydroxide, ammonium nitrate, and ammonia that then are plant accessible, (2) kills the pathogens, (3) reduces or eliminates the odor, (4) dries the manure, (5) reduces the flies, and (6) kills weed seeds. Composting should be conducted “in vessel” to prevent groundwater and air pollution. Wash down operations are no longer environmentally acceptable due to groundwater pollution of nitrates, nitrites, and hydrogen sulfide.

STATISTICS

According to Lobo (1999, Feed Management, V.50, No.8, p.16-17) in 1998 layers and broilers consumed 44 million tons of feed in the United States.
          

BENEFITS 

  • INCREASED PELLET DURABILITY FOR FEEDS
     

  • FLOW AGENT/ANTI CAKING AGENT
     

  • INCREASED NITROGEN CONTENT OF MANURE AND COMPOST

BRZ™ increases and fixes the nitrogen in the manure and compost so that it is plant accessible but not water-soluble. It stops the gassing of the nitrogen as ammonia. Good chicken compost should sell for $75.00 to $90.00 per ton. Many of the areas that have been repeatedly fertilized with chicken manure now have phosphate problems. This is a result of not enough nitrogen to balance the plant uptake of the phosphorous. The problem can be solved by increasing the nitrogen, by the addition of phytase to the feed, and by feeding BRZ™ to solublize the phosphate in the bird.

BRZ™ ADDS VALUE TO MANURE AND COMPOST

The introduction of BRZ™ with the manure or compost to the soil has the benefit of increasing water retention, holding the nitrogen and other nutrients in the growth zone, provides a medium for the future capture of nitrogen, increases the ion exchange capacity of the soil, provides potassium and calcium, and enhances infiltration and aeration of the soil. BRZ™ is a value added soil amendment that should be advertised as such.

  • ODOR CONTROL
    Reduces the ammonia gas and odor in the coop and manure storage and compost areas.
     

  • FLY CONTROL
    Reduced ammonia gas and increased moisture absorption helps control flies.
     

  • GROUNDWATER POLLUTION CONTROL
    Fixing the nitrogen and various heavy metals reduces the pollution of the groundwater with nitrates and nitrites.
     

  • RECYCLE EGG WASH WATER
    Egg wash water can be recycled after filtration through a bed of zeolite granules to remove suspended solids and bacteria (e.g. E. Coli, etc.).

 

AMMONIA LEVELS
Taken from Saskatchewan Poultry Pointers September 1990

Ammonia Level

Effect on Poultry and Humans

10 PPM

  • Respiratory tract of turkeys will receive some damage and interfere with the bird’s ability to clear bacteria from their lungs
  • This level is barely detectable by human sense of smell

25 PPM

  • Damage to lungs and air sacs is noticeable in 48 hours
  • Bacteria and viruses causing fowl cholera, infectious bronchitis and colisepticema  can more easily invade the lungs and airsacs
  • Maximum level of exposure allowed for a 10 minute exposure by OSHA

50 PPM

  • Significant lung and airsac damage in as little as 1-2 weeks
  • Egg numbers will decline in a month or less in ten weeks
  • The sexual maturity of pullets will be delayed and egg numbers will be reduced once egg production begins
  • Extremely dangerous to animals and humans, increased possibility of permanent damage to respiratory tracts of humans and animals

100 PPM

  • Feed intake and body weight will decline significantly over the course of a month
  • Decreased shell thickness and size
  • Extreme irritation to mucus membranes in animals and humans
  • Dangerously close to lethal levels

 

TESTING : Chapter VIII; Using Zeolites in Agriculture

Frederick A. Mumpton, Department of the Earth Sciences, State University College,

Brockport,  NY 14420

CAGED LAYER WASH DOWN MANURE GENERATION, HANDLING, AND PLANT NUTRIENT VALUE

As currently defined for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations concerning Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFO’s), caged layers with wet (wash down) manure handling have a different classification than caged layers with dry manure handling as shown in Table 1.

Table 1. Comparison of EPA and USDA Definition of Number of Animals in 1,000 Animal Units.

(from EPA Cost Methodology Report for Swine and Poultry sectors, 2001)

Animal Type

Animal Unit (EPA definition)

Animal Unit (USDA definition)

Beef cow

1,000

1,000

Dairy cow

750

740

Swine

2,500

9,090

Layer (wet manure)

30,000

250,000

Layer (dry manure)

100,000

250,000

Broiler

100,000

455,000

Turkey

55,000

67,000

According to EPA, there are an equal number of wet and dry caged layer facilities with > 1,000 Animal Units in the U.S.  Most of the wash down manure caged layer operations are in areas of the south where freezing (<28oF) occurs infrequently.

Assumed Food consumption and Manure Production

  • Caged layers daily consume 2,000-2,600 lbs of feed per day per 100,000 head and daily produce
    2,000-  3,400 lbs of fresh manure (moisture @ 70-80%).
     

  • Total nitrogen content of fresh manure averages 1.5-2.0 % (@50-70 % moisture), but initial ammonium
     concentrations are only about 0.57-0.77 %; the remainder is organic-bound N.
     

  • Therefore 1 million hens will produce 10-17 tons of fresh manure (@ 70-80 % moisture) daily.

Wash down Manure Handling and Properties

  • Liquid slurry (in ponds or lagoons), after 6-12 months storage typically contains 62 lbs of total N, 42 lbs of which  is ammonium per 1,000 gallons.  At a value of about $0.35/lb of N, each 1,000 gallons has a nitrogen nutrient value of  $22. If injected into soil as liquid, it has about 80% N availability to plants the first year.
     

  • Associated anaerobic lagoon sludge typically contains 26 lbs of total N, and 8 lbs of this is ammonium N per 1,000 gallon.  The value of N in this sludge is about $9 per 1,000 gallons.  If injected as liquid, it has about 60 % plant availability in the first year.
     

  • Anaerobic lagoon liquid typically contains 179 lbs of total N (154 lbs of this is ammonium) per acre-inch (of liquid in the lagoon).  When injected in the soil as liquid it has 90 % plant availability.
     

  • Many operations will be required to have covers on the lagoons to minimize heat and associated loss of ammonia (gas).
     

  • Addition of zeolite to the fresh manure in small amounts would provide the best chance for capture of ammonium because fresh material has the highest ammonium N concentration.  After washing down, the ammonium concentrations in the liquid is very diluted.

SELECTED REFERENCES

Anonymous, Nutrient composition and sampling procedure: p. 1-10.

[http://ces.soil.ncsu.edu/soilscience/publications/soilfacts/AG-439-05/body.htm]

Camberato, J., Lippert, B., Chastain, J., Plank, O., 1996, Land application of animal manure: p. 1-12. [http://hubcap.clemson.edu/~blpprt/manure.html]

Congressional Research Service, National Council for  Science and the Environment, 1998, Animal Waste II: 98-451, P. 1-9. [http://www.cnie.org/nle/ag-48a.html]

Office of Wastewater Management, Environmental Protection Agency, 2000, Guidance manual and sample NPDES permit for Concentrated Animal Feeding operations: p.1-117.

Office of Water, Environmental Protection Agency, 2001, Cost Methodology Report for Swine and Poultry Sectors: EPA-821-R-01-018, p. 1-221.

Poultry Waste Management, 1998, Environmental Impacts of Poultry Waste: Poultry Water Quality Consortium, Chattanooga, Tennessee, p. 1-41.

 

POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS FOR COMPLIANCE WITH PROPOSED CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS (CAFO) REGULATIONS IN RELATION TO CAGED LAYER FARMS USING STACKED MANURE METHOD

INTRODUCTION

Proposed Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations concerning Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFO’s) will force several changes in all large animal/poultry farms in the United States within the next few years. Several states have already passed statutes concerning regulation of CAFO’s.  The present abbreviated report was prepared to formulate methodologies or approaches to achieve compliance with the proposed regulations in the most cost-effective manner without significant interruption of current operations for caged layers used in egg production.  A major part of the proposal relates to integrated use of natural clinoptilolite (a mineral of the zeolite group) for improving poultry health, reducing ammonia emissions from manure, retaining nitrogen in poultry manure, and thereby producing a poultry manure product that is valuable as fertilizer and soil conditioner.  The CAFO regulations include handling and treatment of water used in egg-washing.

  • Reduce ammonia gas (NH3) generation in caged layer residence and manure storage facility by capturing ammonium (NH4) by ion exchange into zeolite.  This is accomplished by adding a small amount (e.g. 1 wt. %) of zeolite to the layer feed, and adding a small amount (to be determined) of zeolite to fresh manure.  Capture of ammonium by zeolite addition to feed occurs in the gut and some ammonium present in the feces is exchanged into zeolite added to the fresh fecal material.  The exchange of ammonium into the zeolite protects it from nitrogen (N) loss by alteration to ammonia gas or other gaseous nitrogen forms. 

  • Reduction of ammonia generation from fecal material will reduce noxious odors and thereby minimize attention of flies and reduce atmospheric generation of  particulate matter (PM10)10-micron-sized particulate nitrogen-bearing salts that interfere with respiration of  humans, poultry, and animals.  Ammonia emissions from litter have been found to be a source of ammonia pollution in acid rain in Europe.
  • Isolate and age manure in anaerobic conditions using silo bag containers to enhance heat generation in order to destroy potentially toxic pathogens, minimize N loss to atmosphere, eliminate rainfall transport of nutrients and pollutants to the watershed, and remove odor exposure to the local environment.  This isolation might be used to precede composting, either on-site or off-site, depending upon whether or not it is desirable to emit strong odors on-site.
     
  • If composting is desired, aerobic (oxygen-using) conditions are necessary to support and enhance microbial activity; this requires blowers or fans, or turning the compost with a front-end loader or a commercially available compost turner.  Temperatures in the compost must be maintained at levels above approximately 130oF (but lower than 150-160oF) in order to kill any pathogens.  This composting will expose the manure to the atmosphere and allow odors and ammonia gas to be emitted locally.
  • Ion exchange of ammonium from the fecal material displaces potassium and calcium from the zeolite and these plant-essential elements will be available as nutrients in the manure.
     
  • Introduction of zeolite-plus-manure to the soil will have the beneficial effects of enhancing water retention, increasing ion-exchange capacity of the soil, providing a medium for future capture of ammonium nitrogen, and increasing aeration properties of the soil due to the high internal surface area of the zeolite.
     
  • Egg-washing water can be recycled after filtration in a zeolite bed to remove suspended solids and to trap bacteria (e.g. ecoli, etc.) in the zeolite pores.

     
  • Phytase added to the food would improve phosphorous utilization, and thereby minimize phosphorous pollution in the fertilizer application.

 

TYPICAL CAGED LAYER FOOD CONSUMPTION AND MANURE PRODUCTION

  • Caged layers daily consume 2,000-2,600 pounds of food per day per 100,000 head and daily produce 2,000-3,400 pounds of fresh manure (moisture @ 70-80 %).

     
  • Total nitrogen content of fresh manure is 1.5-2.0 % (moisture @ 50-70 %), but ammonium concentrations are only about 0.57-0.77 %.  [The remainder of nitrogen is in organic nitrogen compounds where nitrogen in unavailable for plant nutrition until the nitrogen is converted to either ammonia, ammonium, nitrate, or nitrite.]
     
  • Therefore 3.5 million hens will produce 35-59.5 tons of fresh manure (moisture@ 70-80 %) daily.

NUTRIENT VALUE OF MANURE FOR FERTILIZER / l 2

For caged layers the average concentrations of  N, P2O5, and K2O in fresh manure @ 60% moisture are:

N   = 1.8 %
P2O5 = 2.0%
K2O = 1.0%

At 50 % loss of N prior to field application and values per pound @ N = $0.35, P2O5 = $0.23, and K2O = $0.15, the value of the poultry manure contribution nutrients @ 30% moisture after dry stacking is:

N =   $ 12.60
P2O5  = $18.40
K2O  =   $6.00

_______________________

Total =$37.00 per ton + 25%

*This value of the plant nutrients does not include the value of the K in the clinoptilolite.

SELECTED REFERENCES

Anonymous, Poultry manure management and utilization problems and opportunities: Ohio state university Extension Bulletin 804, p.1-5. [http://www.ag.ohio-state.edu/~ohioline/b804/804_7.html]

Anonymous, 1996, Land application of animal manure: [http://hubcap.clemson.edu/~blpprt/manure.html]

Allen, E.R., and Ming, D.W., 1995, Recent progress in the use of natural zeolites in agronomy and horticulture, in Ming, D.W., and Mumpton, F.A., eds. Natural Zeolites ’93: Occurrence, Properties, Use, June 20-28, 1993, Boise, Idaho, International Committee on Natural Zeolites, Brockport, new Your, p. 477-490.

Allen, E.R., Hossner, L.R., Ming, D.W., and Henninger, D.L., 1996, Release rates of phosphorous, ammonium, and potassium in clinoptilolite-phosphate rock systems: Soil Science Society of America Journal, v. 60, no. 5, p. 1467-1472.

Amon, M., Dobeic, M., Sneath, R.W., Phillips, V.R.,Misselbrook, T.H., and Pain, B.F., 1997, A farm-scale study on the use of clinoptilolite zeolite and De-Odorase for reducing odor and ammonia emissions from broiler houses: Bioresource Technology, v. 61, no. 3, p. 229-237.

Cerjan-Stefanovia, S., and Curkovic, L., 1997, Selectivity of natural zeolites for tosic ions, in Kirov, G., Filizova, L., and Petrov, Ol,m eds. Natural Zeolites—’95: Proceedings of the Sofia Zeolite Meeting ’95: Bulgaria, Pensoft Publishers, p. 121-126.

Cintoli, R., Di Sabatino, B., Galeotti, L., and Bruno, G., 1995,  Ammonium uptake by zeolite  and treatment in USAB reactor of piggery wastewater: Water Science and Technology, v. 32, no. 12, (Waste Management Problems in Agro-Industries 1995) p. 73-81.

Dakovic, A., Tomasevic-Canovic, M., Dondur, V., Radosevic, P., and Dumic, M., 1998, The kinetics of aflatoxin B1 adsorption on Ca-clinoptilolite, in Ribnikar, S., ed. 4th International conference on the Fundamental and Applied Aspects of Physical Chemistry: Belgrade, Yugoslovia, Society of Physical Chemists of Serbia, p. 198-200.

Desborough, G.A., and Crock, J.G., 1996, Nitrogen-loading capacities of some clinoptilolite-rich rocks: U.S. Geololgical Survey Open-File Report 96-661, p. 1-17.

Desborough, G.A., 1996, Clinoptilolite-rich rocks in agricultural use for soil amendment and potential nitrogen-pollution mitigation: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 96-065.

Desborough, G.A., 1996, Some chemical and physical properties of clinoptilolite-rich rocks: U.S.  Geological Survey Open-File Report 96-265, p. 1-7.

Dwyer, M.R., Kubena, L.F., Harvey, R.B., Mayura, K., Sarr, A.B., Buckley, S., Bailey, R.H., and Phillips, T.D., 1997, Effects of inorganic adsorbents andcyclopiazonic acid in broiler chickens: Poultry Science, v. 76, p. 1141-1149.

Gilbert, J.S., O’Meara, P.M., Crock, J.G., Wildeman, T.R., and Desborough, G.A., 1999, Adsorption capabilities of selected clinoptilolite-rich rocks as it relates to mine drainage remediation: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 99-17, p. 1-50.

Hervey, R.B., Kubena, L.F., Ellissalde, M.H., and Phillips, T.D., 1993, Effacy of zeoitic ore compounds on the toxicity of aflatoxin to growing broiler chickens: Avian Diseases, v. 37, p. 67-73.

Huang, Z.T., and Petrovic, A.M., 1994, Clinoptilolite zeolite influence on nitrate leaching and nitrogen use efficiency in simulated sand based golf greens: Journal of Environmental Quality v. 23, no. 6, p. 1190-1194.

Lon-Wo, E., Zaldivar, V., and Margolles, E., 1993, Effect of natural zeolites on poultry feeding with different nutritional levels of high mycotoxin contamination: Cuban journal of Agricultural Science, v. 27, no. 2, p. 199-204.

Mahimairaja, S., Bolan, N.S., hedley, m.J., and Macgregor, A.N., 1994, Losses and transformation of nitrogen during composting of poultry manure with different amendments: An incubation experiment: Bioresource Technology, v. 47, no. 3, p. 265-273.

Mitchell, C.C., and Donald, J.O., 1995, The value and use of poultry manure as fertilizer: Alabama Cooperative Extension System, Circular ANR-244, p. 1-6. [http://hubcap.clemson.edu/~blpprt/Aub+244.html]

Nguyer, M.L., and Tanner, C.C., 1998, Ammonium removal from wastewaters using natural New Zealand zeolites: New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, v. 41, p. 427-446.

Pond, W.G., 1995, Zeolites in animal nutrition and health: A review, in Ming, D.W., and Mumpron, F.A., eds., Natural Zeolites ’93: Occurrence, Properties, Use, June 20-28, 1993, Boise, Idaho, International Committee on Natural Zeolites, Brockport, New York p. 449-457.

Preston, K.T., and Alleman, J.E., Co-immobilization of nitrifying bacteria and clinoptilolite for enhanced control of nitrification: Proceedings of the 48th Industrial Waste Conference, p. 407-412.

Ramos, A.J., and Hernandez, E., 1997, Prevention of aflatoxicosis in farm animals by means of hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate addition to feedstuffs: A review: Animal Feed Science and Technology, v. 65, p. 197-206.

Saad, N., Aflatoxins: Occurrence and Health Risks, 10 p. [http://www.ansci.cornell.edu/plants/toxicagents/aflatoxin/aflatoxin.html]

Tomasevia-Canovic, M., Dumic, M., Vukicevic, O., Masic, Z., Zurovac-Kuzman, O., and Dakovic, A., 1997, Adsorption of mycotoxins on modified clinoptilolite, in Kirov, G., Filizova, :l., and Petrov, O., eds., Natural Zeolites—’95: Proceedings of the Sofia Zeolite Meeting ’95: Sofia, Bulgaria, Pensoft Publishers, p. 127-132.