BRZ FOR POULTRY
14 x 40, 30 x 60, -40 mesh, 60 cycle
This is the most effective point of
addition. Many farms have eliminated most of
their odor by feeding between ˝ to 2% of the
total ration on a weight basis of BRZ™.
A 14 x 40 or a -40 mesh product should be
fed in mash or a -40 mesh should be used to
A thin layer should be applied to the
bedding area or to the area that receives
the manure each time it is cleaned out.
COMPOST OR DRY STACKED MANURE
The compost or dry stacked manure should be
“top dressed” with a thin layer of BRZ™
after it is turned or after the addition of
a new layer of manure. Alternatively, a
layer of BRZ should be placed in the area of
the barn receiving the fresh manure.
Composting is an important process that (1)
converts organically bound nitrogen that is
not plant accessible to ammonium hydroxide,
ammonium nitrate, and ammonia that then are
plant accessible, (2) kills the pathogens,
(3) reduces or eliminates the odor, (4)
dries the manure, (5) reduces the flies, and
(6) kills weed seeds. Composting should be
conducted “in vessel” to prevent groundwater
and air pollution. Wash down operations are
no longer environmentally acceptable due to
groundwater pollution of nitrates, nitrites,
and hydrogen sulfide.
According to Lobo (1999, Feed Management, V.50,
No.8, p.16-17) in 1998 layers and broilers
consumed 44 million tons of feed in the United
INCREASED PELLET DURABILITY FOR FEEDS
FLOW AGENT/ANTI CAKING AGENT
INCREASED NITROGEN CONTENT OF MANURE AND
BRZ™ increases and fixes the nitrogen in the
manure and compost so that it is plant
accessible but not water-soluble. It stops the
gassing of the nitrogen as ammonia. Good chicken
compost should sell for $75.00 to $90.00 per
ton. Many of the areas that have been repeatedly
fertilized with chicken manure now have
phosphate problems. This is a result of not
enough nitrogen to balance the plant uptake of
the phosphorous. The problem can be solved by
increasing the nitrogen, by the addition of
phytase to the feed, and by feeding BRZ™ to
solublize the phosphate in the bird.
BRZ™ ADDS VALUE TO MANURE AND COMPOST
The introduction of BRZ™ with the manure or
compost to the soil has the benefit of
increasing water retention, holding the nitrogen
and other nutrients in the growth zone, provides
a medium for the future capture of nitrogen,
increases the ion exchange capacity of the soil,
provides potassium and calcium, and enhances
infiltration and aeration of the soil. BRZ™ is a
value added soil amendment that should be
advertised as such.
Reduces the ammonia gas and odor in the coop
and manure storage and compost areas.
Reduced ammonia gas and increased moisture
absorption helps control flies.
GROUNDWATER POLLUTION CONTROL
Fixing the nitrogen and various heavy metals
reduces the pollution of the groundwater
with nitrates and nitrites.
RECYCLE EGG WASH WATER
Egg wash water can be recycled after
filtration through a bed of zeolite granules
to remove suspended solids and bacteria
(e.g. E. Coli, etc.).
Taken from Saskatchewan Poultry Pointers
Effect on Poultry and
of turkeys will receive some
damage and interfere with the
bird’s ability to clear bacteria
from their lungs
This level is
barely detectable by human sense
Damage to lungs
and air sacs is noticeable in 48
viruses causing fowl cholera,
infectious bronchitis and
colisepticema can more
easily invade the lungs and
Maximum level of
exposure allowed for a 10 minute
exposure by OSHA
and airsac damage in as little
as 1-2 weeks
Egg numbers will
decline in a month or less in
maturity of pullets will be
delayed and egg numbers will be
reduced once egg production
dangerous to animals and humans,
increased possibility of
permanent damage to respiratory
tracts of humans and animals
Feed intake and
body weight will decline
significantly over the course of
thickness and size
irritation to mucus membranes in
animals and humans
to lethal levels
TESTING : Chapter VIII; Using Zeolites in
Frederick A. Mumpton, Department of the Earth
Sciences, State University College,
Brockport, NY 14420
CAGED LAYER WASH DOWN MANURE GENERATION,
HANDLING, AND PLANT NUTRIENT VALUE
currently defined for the Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) regulations concerning
Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFO’s),
caged layers with wet (wash down) manure
handling have a different classification than
caged layers with dry manure handling as shown
in Table 1.
Table 1. Comparison of EPA and USDA Definition
of Number of Animals in 1,000 Animal Units.
(from EPA Cost Methodology Report for Swine and
Poultry sectors, 2001)
Layer (wet manure)
Layer (dry manure)
According to EPA, there are an equal number of
wet and dry caged layer facilities with > 1,000
Animal Units in the U.S. Most of the wash
down manure caged layer operations are in areas
of the south where freezing (<28oF)
Assumed Food consumption and Manure Production
Caged layers daily consume 2,000-2,600 lbs
of feed per day per 100,000 head and daily
2,000- 3,400 lbs of fresh
manure (moisture @ 70-80%).
Total nitrogen content of fresh manure
averages 1.5-2.0 % (@50-70 % moisture), but
only about 0.57-0.77 %; the remainder is
Therefore 1 million hens will produce 10-17
tons of fresh manure (@ 70-80 % moisture)
Wash down Manure Handling and Properties
(in ponds or lagoons), after 6-12 months
storage typically contains 62 lbs of total
N, 42 lbs of which is ammonium per
1,000 gallons. At a value of about
$0.35/lb of N, each 1,000 gallons has a
nitrogen nutrient value of $22. If
injected into soil as liquid, it has about
80% N availability to plants the first year.
Associated anaerobic lagoon sludge
typically contains 26 lbs of total N, and 8
lbs of this is ammonium N per 1,000 gallon.
The value of N in this sludge is about $9
per 1,000 gallons. If injected as
liquid, it has about 60 % plant availability
in the first year.
Anaerobic lagoon liquid typically
contains 179 lbs of total N (154 lbs of this
is ammonium) per acre-inch (of liquid in the
lagoon). When injected in the soil as
liquid it has 90 % plant availability.
Many operations will be required to have
covers on the lagoons to minimize heat and
associated loss of ammonia (gas).
Addition of zeolite to the fresh manure in
small amounts would provide the best chance
for capture of ammonium because fresh
material has the highest ammonium N
concentration. After washing down, the
ammonium concentrations in the liquid is
composition and sampling procedure: p. 1-10.
Camberato, J., Lippert, B.,
Chastain, J., Plank, O., 1996, Land
application of animal manure: p. 1-12.
Service, National Council for Science
and the Environment, 1998, Animal Waste II:
98-451, P. 1-9. [http://www.cnie.org/nle/ag-48a.html]
Office of Wastewater
Management, Environmental Protection Agency,
2000, Guidance manual and sample NPDES
permit for Concentrated Animal Feeding
Office of Water,
Environmental Protection Agency, 2001, Cost
Methodology Report for Swine and Poultry
Sectors: EPA-821-R-01-018, p. 1-221.
Poultry Waste Management,
1998, Environmental Impacts of Poultry
Waste: Poultry Water Quality Consortium,
Chattanooga, Tennessee, p. 1-41.
POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS FOR COMPLIANCE WITH PROPOSED
CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS (CAFO)
REGULATIONS IN RELATION TO CAGED LAYER FARMS
USING STACKED MANURE METHOD
Proposed Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
regulations concerning Concentrated Animal
Feeding Operations (CAFO’s) will force several
changes in all large animal/poultry farms in the
United States within the next few years. Several
states have already passed statutes concerning
regulation of CAFO’s. The present
abbreviated report was prepared to formulate
methodologies or approaches to achieve
compliance with the proposed regulations in the
most cost-effective manner without significant
interruption of current operations for caged
layers used in egg production. A major
part of the proposal relates to integrated use
of natural clinoptilolite (a mineral of the
zeolite group) for improving poultry health,
reducing ammonia emissions from manure,
retaining nitrogen in poultry manure, and
thereby producing a poultry manure product that
is valuable as fertilizer and soil conditioner.
The CAFO regulations include handling and
treatment of water used in egg-washing.
Reduce ammonia gas (NH3)
generation in caged layer residence and
manure storage facility by capturing
ammonium (NH4) by ion exchange
into zeolite. This is accomplished by
adding a small amount (e.g. 1 wt. %) of
zeolite to the layer feed, and adding a
small amount (to be determined) of zeolite
to fresh manure. Capture of ammonium
by zeolite addition to feed occurs in the
gut and some ammonium present in the feces
is exchanged into zeolite added to the fresh
fecal material. The exchange of
ammonium into the zeolite protects it from
nitrogen (N) loss by alteration to ammonia
gas or other gaseous nitrogen forms.
Reduction of ammonia
generation from fecal material will reduce
noxious odors and thereby minimize attention
of flies and reduce atmospheric generation
of particulate matter (PM10)10-micron-sized
particulate nitrogen-bearing salts that
interfere with respiration of humans,
poultry, and animals. Ammonia
emissions from litter have been found to be
a source of ammonia pollution in acid rain
Isolate and age manure in
anaerobic conditions using silo bag
containers to enhance heat generation in
order to destroy potentially toxic
pathogens, minimize N loss to atmosphere,
eliminate rainfall transport of nutrients
and pollutants to the watershed, and remove
odor exposure to the local environment.
This isolation might be used to precede
composting, either on-site or off-site,
depending upon whether or not it is
desirable to emit strong odors on-site.
If composting is desired,
aerobic (oxygen-using) conditions are
necessary to support and enhance microbial
activity; this requires blowers or fans, or
turning the compost with a front-end loader
or a commercially available compost turner.
Temperatures in the compost must be
maintained at levels above approximately 130oF
(but lower than 150-160oF) in
order to kill any pathogens. This
composting will expose the manure to the
atmosphere and allow odors and ammonia gas
to be emitted locally.
Ion exchange of ammonium from
the fecal material displaces potassium and
calcium from the zeolite and these
plant-essential elements will be available
as nutrients in the manure.
zeolite-plus-manure to the soil will have
the beneficial effects of enhancing water
retention, increasing ion-exchange capacity
of the soil, providing a medium for future
capture of ammonium nitrogen, and increasing
aeration properties of the soil due to the
high internal surface area of the zeolite.
Egg-washing water can be
recycled after filtration in a zeolite bed
to remove suspended solids and to trap
bacteria (e.g. ecoli, etc.) in the
Phytase added to the food
would improve phosphorous utilization, and
thereby minimize phosphorous pollution in
the fertilizer application.
TYPICAL CAGED LAYER FOOD CONSUMPTION AND MANURE
Caged layers daily consume
2,000-2,600 pounds of food per day per
100,000 head and daily produce 2,000-3,400
pounds of fresh manure (moisture @ 70-80 %).
Total nitrogen content of
fresh manure is 1.5-2.0 % (moisture @ 50-70
%), but ammonium concentrations are only
about 0.57-0.77 %. [The remainder of
nitrogen is in organic nitrogen compounds
where nitrogen in unavailable for plant
nutrition until the nitrogen is converted to
either ammonia, ammonium, nitrate, or
Therefore 3.5 million hens
will produce 35-59.5 tons of fresh manure
(moisture@ 70-80 %) daily.
NUTRIENT VALUE OF MANURE FOR FERTILIZER / l 2
For caged layers the average concentrations of
N, P2O5, and K2O
in fresh manure @ 60% moisture are:
N = 1.8 %
P2O5 = 2.0%
K2O = 1.0%
50 % loss of N prior to field application and
values per pound @ N = $0.35, P2O5
= $0.23, and K2O = $0.15, the value
of the poultry manure contribution nutrients @
30% moisture after dry stacking is:
= $ 12.60
P2O5 = $18.40
K2O = $6.00
Total =$37.00 per ton + 25%
*This value of the plant nutrients does not
include the value of the K in the
Anonymous, Poultry manure
management and utilization problems and
opportunities: Ohio state university
Extension Bulletin 804, p.1-5. [http://www.ag.ohio-state.edu/~ohioline/b804/804_7.html]
Anonymous, 1996, Land
application of animal manure: [http://hubcap.clemson.edu/~blpprt/manure.html]
Allen, E.R., and Ming, D.W.,
1995, Recent progress in the use of natural
zeolites in agronomy and horticulture, in
Ming, D.W., and Mumpton, F.A., eds. Natural
Zeolites ’93: Occurrence, Properties, Use,
June 20-28, 1993, Boise, Idaho,
International Committee on Natural Zeolites,
Brockport, new Your, p. 477-490.
Allen, E.R., Hossner, L.R.,
Ming, D.W., and Henninger, D.L., 1996,
Release rates of phosphorous, ammonium, and
potassium in clinoptilolite-phosphate rock
systems: Soil Science Society of America
Journal, v. 60, no. 5, p. 1467-1472.
Amon, M., Dobeic, M., Sneath,
R.W., Phillips, V.R.,Misselbrook, T.H., and
Pain, B.F., 1997, A farm-scale study on the
use of clinoptilolite zeolite and De-Odorase
for reducing odor and ammonia emissions from
broiler houses: Bioresource Technology, v.
61, no. 3, p. 229-237.
Cerjan-Stefanovia, S., and
Curkovic, L., 1997, Selectivity of natural
zeolites for tosic ions, in Kirov, G.,
Filizova, L., and Petrov, Ol,m eds.
Natural Zeolites—’95: Proceedings of the
Sofia Zeolite Meeting ’95: Bulgaria, Pensoft
Publishers, p. 121-126.
Cintoli, R., Di Sabatino, B.,
Galeotti, L., and Bruno, G., 1995,
Ammonium uptake by zeolite and
treatment in USAB reactor of piggery
wastewater: Water Science and Technology, v.
32, no. 12, (Waste Management Problems in
Agro-Industries 1995) p. 73-81.
Tomasevic-Canovic, M., Dondur, V., Radosevic,
P., and Dumic, M., 1998, The kinetics of
aflatoxin B1 adsorption on
Ca-clinoptilolite, in Ribnikar, S., ed. 4th
International conference on the Fundamental
and Applied Aspects of Physical Chemistry:
Belgrade, Yugoslovia, Society of Physical
Chemists of Serbia, p. 198-200.
Desborough, G.A., and Crock,
J.G., 1996, Nitrogen-loading capacities of
some clinoptilolite-rich rocks: U.S.
Geololgical Survey Open-File Report 96-661,
Desborough, G.A., 1996,
Clinoptilolite-rich rocks in agricultural
use for soil amendment and potential
nitrogen-pollution mitigation: U.S.
Geological Survey Open-File Report 96-065.
Desborough, G.A., 1996, Some
chemical and physical properties of
clinoptilolite-rich rocks: U.S.
Geological Survey Open-File Report 96-265,
Dwyer, M.R., Kubena, L.F.,
Harvey, R.B., Mayura, K., Sarr, A.B.,
Buckley, S., Bailey, R.H., and Phillips, T.D.,
1997, Effects of inorganic adsorbents
andcyclopiazonic acid in broiler chickens:
Poultry Science, v. 76, p. 1141-1149.
Gilbert, J.S., O’Meara, P.M.,
Crock, J.G., Wildeman, T.R., and Desborough,
G.A., 1999, Adsorption capabilities of
selected clinoptilolite-rich rocks as it
relates to mine drainage remediation: U.S.
Geological Survey Open-File Report 99-17, p.
Hervey, R.B., Kubena, L.F.,
Ellissalde, M.H., and Phillips, T.D., 1993,
Effacy of zeoitic ore compounds on the
toxicity of aflatoxin to growing broiler
chickens: Avian Diseases, v. 37, p. 67-73.
Huang, Z.T., and Petrovic,
A.M., 1994, Clinoptilolite zeolite influence
on nitrate leaching and nitrogen use
efficiency in simulated sand based golf
greens: Journal of Environmental Quality v.
23, no. 6, p. 1190-1194.
Lon-Wo, E., Zaldivar, V., and
Margolles, E., 1993, Effect of natural
zeolites on poultry feeding with different
nutritional levels of high mycotoxin
contamination: Cuban journal of Agricultural
Science, v. 27, no. 2, p. 199-204.
Mahimairaja, S., Bolan, N.S.,
hedley, m.J., and Macgregor, A.N., 1994,
Losses and transformation of nitrogen during
composting of poultry manure with different
amendments: An incubation experiment:
Bioresource Technology, v. 47, no. 3, p.
Mitchell, C.C., and Donald,
J.O., 1995, The value and use of poultry
manure as fertilizer: Alabama Cooperative
Extension System, Circular ANR-244, p. 1-6.
Nguyer, M.L., and Tanner,
C.C., 1998, Ammonium removal from
wastewaters using natural New Zealand
zeolites: New Zealand Journal of
Agricultural Research, v. 41, p. 427-446.
Pond, W.G., 1995, Zeolites in
animal nutrition and health: A review, in
Ming, D.W., and Mumpron, F.A., eds., Natural
Zeolites ’93: Occurrence, Properties, Use,
June 20-28, 1993, Boise, Idaho,
International Committee on Natural Zeolites,
Brockport, New York p. 449-457.
Preston, K.T., and Alleman,
J.E., Co-immobilization of nitrifying
bacteria and clinoptilolite for enhanced
control of nitrification: Proceedings of the
48th Industrial Waste Conference,
Ramos, A.J., and Hernandez,
E., 1997, Prevention of aflatoxicosis in
farm animals by means of hydrated sodium
calcium aluminosilicate addition to
feedstuffs: A review: Animal Feed Science
and Technology, v. 65, p. 197-206.
Saad, N., Aflatoxins:
Occurrence and Health Risks, 10 p. [http://www.ansci.cornell.edu/plants/toxicagents/aflatoxin/aflatoxin.html]
Tomasevia-Canovic, M., Dumic,
M., Vukicevic, O., Masic, Z.,
Zurovac-Kuzman, O., and Dakovic, A., 1997,
Adsorption of mycotoxins on modified
clinoptilolite, in Kirov, G., Filizova, :l.,
and Petrov, O., eds., Natural Zeolites—’95:
Proceedings of the Sofia Zeolite Meeting
’95: Sofia, Bulgaria, Pensoft Publishers, p.