email: tfl3543@blackfoot.net

BEAR RIVER ZEOLITE CO., INC.
4005 East Glendale Road
Preston, ID 83263

tel: 406-827-3523
fax: 406-827-3543

Printer Friendly

BRZ FOR HOGS

PRODUCT DESCRIPTION
    
Size: 14 x 40, 30 x 60, -40 mesh, 60 cycle.

STATISTICS

According to Lobo (1999, Feed Management, V.50, No.8, p.16-17) in 1998 hogs consumed 136 million tons of feed. Swine accounted for 26 percent of the total feed consumed for animal and poultry.

APPLICATIONS

This is the most effective point of addition. Many farms have eliminated most of their odor and realized greater animal health, welfare, and production by feeding between ½ to 2% of the total ration on a dry-weight basis of BRZ™.

FEED

This is the most effective point of addition. Many farms have eliminated most of their odor and realized greater animal health, welfare, and production by feeding between ½ to 2% of the total ration on a dry-weight basis of BRZ™.

BEDDING AREA

A thin layer should be applied to the bedding area and to the area that receives the manure each time they are cleaned out.

COMPOST OR DRY STACKED MANURE

The compost or dry stacked manure should be “top dressed” with a thin layer of BRZ™ after it is turned or after the addition of a new layer of manure. Alternatively, a layer of BRZ™ should be placed in the area of the barn receiving the fresh manure. Composting is an important process that (1) converts organically bound nitrogen that is not plant accessible to ammonium hydroxide, ammonium nitrate, and ammonia that are plant accessible, (2) kills the pathogens, (3) reduces or eliminates the odor, (4) dries the manure, (5) reduces the flies, and (6) kills weed seeds. Composting should be conducted “in vessel” to prevent groundwater and air pollution. Wash down operations are no longer environmentally acceptable due to groundwater pollution of nitrates, nitrites, and hydrogen sulfides.

BENEFITS 

  • FLOW AGENT/ANTI CAKING AGENT in feed components.
     

  • INCREASED PELLET DURABILITY allows higher temperatures in pellet mills that increase production and gelatinization that make more durable pellets.
     

  • INCREASED NITROGEN CONTENT OF MANURE AND COMPOST
    BRZ™ increases and fixes the nitrogen in the manure and compost so that it is plant accessible but not water-soluble. It stops the gassing of the nitrogen as ammonia.
     

  • BRZ™ ADDS VALUE TO MANURE AND COMPOST
    The introduction of BRZ™ with the manure or compost to the soil has the benefit of increasing water retention, holding the nitrogen and other nutrients in the growth zone, provides a medium for the future capture of nitrogen, increases the ion exchange capacity of the soil, provides potassium and calcium, and enhances infiltration and aeration of the soil. BRZ™ is a value added soil amendment that should be advertised.
     

  • ODOR CONTROL
    Reducing the ammonia gas in the barn and compost areas reduces the odor.
     

  • FLY CONTROL
    Reduced ammonia gas and increased moisture absorption helps control flies.
     

  • GROUNDWATER POLLUTION CONTROL
    Fixing the nitrogen and various heavy metals reduces the pollution of the groundwater with nitrates and nitrites.
     

METHODS, LOGIC, AND CHEMISTRY OF CONTROLLING ODORS AND NITROGEN LOSSES
FROM SWINE MANURE 

I.      Treatment Before Excretion

Numerous studies of the beneficial effects of using clinoptilolite (zeolite) feed additive for improved health and reduction of odor production have been done. These include Pond (1995), Poulson and Oksbjerg, (1995), Uygongco and others (1999), Veldman and Vander Aar, (1997), and Yannakopoulos and others (2000), and reports in languages other than English.

A significant effect of zeolite in the alimentary tract includes the reaction that involves the ion exchange of ammonium into the zeolite, where the ammonium displaces cations such as Ca, K, and Na—due to the higher affinity of zeolite for the ammonium in cation sites. Ammonium in the cation sites is not water soluble, and it is protected from bacterial degradation. This practice reduces nitrogen losses before excretion.

II.     Treatment of Fresh Manure and Related Wastewater

Addition of zeolite to fresh manure provides a means of capturing ammonium by ion exchange, although ammonium N is only about one-half of the total N in fresh manure. The remainder of the N in manure is chiefly organically bound N—some of which will be naturally converted to ammonium N. In the absence of zeolite, as natural degradation of manure takes place, during the first 3-4 days most of the N is lost as ammonia gas, and some is lost as nitrate or nitrite during natural oxidation of the organically-bound N. Lefcourt and Meisinger (2001) recently found that by adding 6.25% zeolite to dairy slurry reduced ammonium volatilization by 55%.
Harris and others (undated) report that the average annual ammonia emissions from fattening (finishing) barns in North Carolina were 3.69 kg/hog/yr, but during the summer emission rates were 4.81 kg/hog/yr. Other studies in the U.S. and Europe report annual rates ranging from about 2-5 kg/hog/yr. Taking a mid-range of 3.5 kg/hog/yr amounts to an ammonia gas N loss of 6.36 lb/hog/yr, or 0.0174 lb/hog/day. For a 1,000 head hog barn this amounts to an ammonia N loss of 17.4 lbs/day, or 6,351 lbs/yr. If half of this could be retained as fertilizer N, it amounts to about $950 of N value per 1,000 head hog barn, while significantly reducing odor problems.

For swine lagoons the report of Ham (1999) indicates the average concentration of ammonium N in several swine lagoons in Kansas was about 670 mg/L (ppm). Reports as high as about 1,200 mg/L of ammonium N have been reported for some swine lagoons. Small amounts of zeolite added directly to the lagoons would reduce ammonia emissions by ammonium capture. If aeration of the normally reducing environment in the lower part of the lagoon is done, H2S is oxidized to produce sulfate ions. Calcium ions displaced from the zeolite by ammonium will combine with the sulfate to form gypsum (CaSO4), which is beneficial to soil properties in terms of plant nutrition. In addition, Ca ions displaced from zeolite may combine with manure derived orthophosphate to form a non-crystalline Ca-phosphate that is not highly soluble in near-neutral pH soils, but provides plant-available phosphate.

III.     Composting Solids

Unenclosed or outdoor composting of swine manure solids is not reasonable because of high nitrogen losses from N in organically bound N, large ammonium emissions generating noxious odors, occupies too much real estate, is labor intensive due to turning, and losses of N, P, and K due to precipitation. In addition, during winter months of cold climates, proper composting temperatures cannot be maintained.

Either enclosed vessel composting (barns), or mechanical in vessel composting rotating drums such as the design of B W Organics, Inc. could be used for swine manure separated solids. However, in order to obtain the correct Carbon/Nitrogen ratio of 15-30, material such as chopped wheat or barley straw would have to be added. The zeolite that was added either to the feed or to the fresh manure, or both, should report to the solid fraction of the solid/liquid separation process, adding the N value to the composted product. For the rotating drum composter, with a 96 cu yd capacity, 33 cu yd of manure solids plus chopped straw with 50 % moisture is added each day and the composted product is finished in 3 days. This eliminates outdoor storage and significantly reduces airborne noxious odors. The composted product qualifies for use on “Organic” grown labels on produce, grain, etc. Pelletizing the composted product would enhance the value (due to higher NPK) and increase the potential shipping distance, as well as reduce the volume to be stored or handled.

IV.   Selecting a clinoptilolite (zeolite) for use in Manure Waste to be used as Crop Fertilizer

  • For the purpose of ammonium capture, the zeolite with the highest cation exchange capacity for NH4+ ammonium should be used.

  • Because of the plant toxicity of sodium, a zeolite with a very low concentration of exchangeable Na is required (e.g. less than 0.7 wt. % Na2O).

  • A zeolite with high K (plus Ca) is preferred because K exchanged out when ammonium replaces K is plant available and water-soluble.

  • A zeolite with some exchangeable Ca is desirable so that Ca exchanged out due to ammonium replacement is available to form Ca-phosphate and precipitate gypsum (hydrated CaSO4) when organic-bound sulfur is generated under oxidizing conditions.

  • A zeolite with high cation-exchange capacity is desirable because it enhances soil quality.

  •  A zeolite with a large amount of pore space (internal surface area) is desirable because this accelerates the ion-exchange reactions.

  • A zeolite with no “clay” minerals is desirable because clays tend to reduce both aeration and water permeability of soil.
    Zeolites from different natural deposits have variable proportions of the mineral clinoptilolite. Thus a rock containing a high concentration of clinoptilolite will have more ion-exchange capacity than one with lower concentrations of the mineral.

  • Zeolites with moderate physical strength will be better than those that tend to be soft. Soft clinoptilolites will tend to disaggregate and make dust during handling and transport. In addition the soft zeolites that contain minor amounts of “clay” minerals tend to “fall apart” when saturated due to expansion of the “clays” (e.g. montmorillonite).

  • The zeolite should contain no associated carbonate minerals such as calcite (CaCO3) because this mineral will tend to raise the pH of the manure and associated water, which will promote conversion of ammonium to ammonia gas.
     

SELECTED REFERENCES

Bailey L., and Buckley, K., 2001, Land application of hog manure: Agronomic and Environmental Considerations, The Canadian perspective: p. 1-17, Proceedings for the Joint CPC/AAFC workshop on Hogs and the Environment. [http://res2.agr.ca/initiatives/manurenet/en/hems/bailey.html]

Bernal, M.P., Lopez-Real, J.M., and Scott, K.M., 1993, Application of natural zeolites for the reduction of ammonia emissions during the composting of organic wastes in a laboratory composting simulator: Bioresource Technology, v. 43, p. 35-39.

Canadian Agri-Food Research Council, 1998, Research strategy for hog manure management in Canada:
Research Branch, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, p. 1-30. [http://res2.agr.ca/initiatives/manurenet/en/strat_man.html]Cerjan-Stefanovia, S., and Curkovic, L., 1997, Selectivity of natural zeolites for toxic ions, in Kirov, G., Filizova, L., and Petrov, O., eds., Natural Zeolites-—‘95: Proceedings of the Sofia Zeolite meeting ’95: Sofia, Bulgaria, Pensoft Publishers, p. 121-126.

Cintoli, R., DiSabatino, B., Galeotti, L., and Bruno, G., 1995, Ammonium uptake by zeolite and treatment in UASB reactor of piggery wastewater: Water Science and Technology, v. 32, no. 12, (Waste Management Problems in Agro-Industries 1995), p. 73-81.

Davis, J.G., Andrews, J.E., and Al-Kaisi, M.M., 1997, Liquid manure management: Fact sheet 1.221, Colorado State University Cooperative Extension, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523, p. 1-4.

Desborough, G.A., and Crock, J.G., 1996, Nitrogen-loading capacities of some clinoptilolite-rich rocks: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 96-661, p. 1-17.

Drummond, J.G., Curtis, S.E., Simon, J., and Norton, H.W., 1980, Effects of aerial ammonia on growth and health of young pigs: Journal of Animal Science, v. 50, p. 1085-1091.

Evans, S.D., Goodrich, P.R., Munter, R..C. and Smith, R.E., 1977, Effects of solid and liquid beef manure on soil characteristics and on growth, yield, and composition of corn: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 6, p. 361-368.

Fulhage, C., and Pfost, D., 2001, Swine manure management systems in Missouri: Univ. of Missouri Agricultural publication EQ350, p. 1-11. [http://muextension.missouri.edu/xplor/envqual/eq0350.htm]

Ham, J.M., 1999, Seepage loss from animal waste lagoons: Potential Impacts on Groundwater Quality:
Research Update, Kansas State University, [http://www.oznet.ksu.edu/lagoon/new_page_1.htm]

Harris, D.B., Shores, R.C., and Jones, L.G., undated, Ammonia emission factors from swine finishing operations: EPA, Office of Research and Development National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC. (From Harris, D.B., and Thompson, E.L., 1998, Evaluation of Ammonia Emissions from swine operations in North Carolina: Proceedings of Emission Inventory—Living in a Global Environment, VI-88, and p. 420-429. Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA.)

Jorgensen, S.E., Libor, O., Lea grabber, K., and Barkacs, K., 1976, Ammonia removal by use of clinoptilolite: Water Resources, v. 10, p. 213-224.

Kroger, R., and Pfeiffer, A., 1995, Examination of feed- and slurry-additives for decrease of ammonia emissions from pig houses: DTW, Deutsche Tieraerztliche Wochenschrift, v. 102, no. 8, p. 316-320.

Lefcourt, A.M., and Meisinger, J.J., 2001, Effect of adding alum and zeolite to dairy slurry on ammonium volatilization and chemical composition: Journal of Dairy Science, v. 84,p. 1814-1821.

Milan, Z., Sanchez, E., Weiland, P., DeLas Pozas, C., Borja, R., Mayari, R., and Rovirosa, N., 1997, Ammonia removal from anerobically treated piggery manure by ion exchange in columns packed with homoionic zeolite: Chemical engineering Journal (Lausanne) v. 66, no. 1, p. 65-71.

Nguyen, M.L., and Tanner, C.C., 1998, Ammonium removal from wastewaters using natural zeolites:
New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, v. 41. p. 427-446.

Pond, W.G., 1995 Zeolites in animal nutrition and health: A review, in Ming, D.W., and Mumpton, F.A., eds. Natural Zeolites ’93: Occurrence, Properties, Use, June 20-28, 1993: Boise, Idaho, International Committee on Natural Zeolites, Brockport, New York, p. 449-457.

Poulson, H.D., and Oksbjerg, N., 1995, Effect of dietary inclusion of a zeolite (clinoptilolite) on performance and protein metabolism of young growing pigs: Animal Feed Science and Technology, v. 53, no. 3, 4, p. 297-303.

Ramos, A.J., and Hernandez, E., 1997, Prevention of aflatoxicosis in farm animals by means of hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate addition to feed stuffs: A review: Animal Feed Science and Technology,v. 65, p. 197-206.

Silva, S., Baffi, C., and Piva, A., 1993, Removal of ammonia nitrogen from pig wastes using natural zeolites: Annali della Facolta di Agaria (University Cattalica del Sacro Cuore), v. 33, no. 1, p. 59-78.

Sutton, A.L., Nelson, D.W., Mayrose, V.B., Nye, J.C., and Kelly, D.T., 1984, Effects of varying salt levels in liquid swine manure on soil composition and corn yield: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 13, p. 49-59.

Tomasevia-Canovic, M., Dumic, M., Vukicevic, O., Masic, Z., Zurovac-Kuzman, O., and Dakovic, A., 1997, Adsorption of mycotoxins on modified clinoptilolite, in Kirov, G., Filizova, L., and Petrov, O., eds., Natural Zeolites--’95: Proceedings of the Sofia Zeolite Meeting ’95: Sofia, Bulgaria, Pensoft Publishers, p. 127-132.

Uygongco, G., Honeyman, M., Zimmerman, D.R., and Bundy, D., 1999, Effects of reduced nitrogen content and clinoptilolite supplementation of diets on growth performance, nitrogen excretion, and odor production: Swine Research Report ASL-R1663 (Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University).

Veldman, A., and Van der Aar, P.J., 1997, Effects of dietary inclusion of a natural clinoptilolite (ManneliteTM) on piglet performance: Agribiological Research, v. 50, no. 4 p. 289-294.

Yannakopoulos, A., Tserveni-Gousi, A., Kassoli-Fournaraki, A., Tsiramides, A., Michalidis, K., Filippidis, A., and Lutat, U., 2000, Effects of dietary clinoptilolite-rich tuff on the performance of growing-finishing pigs: in Colella, C., and Mumpton, F.A. eds. “Natural Zeolites for the third Millennium” De Frede Editore, Napoli, Italy, p. 471-481.